英語語句中的主語修飾語

英語句子中的任何實詞都可以帶形容詞修飾語,并且以主語修飾語最為重要。簡單主語可以被形容詞,形容詞短語或形容詞從句,以及分詞,動詞不定式,所有格和同位語修飾。

形容詞,形容詞短語及形容詞從句

簡單主語可以被形容詞,形容詞短語或形容詞從句修飾。例如:

{Ivory trinkets | Trinkets of ivory | Trinkets which were carved from ivory} lay scattered about。

這個句子的主語trinkets分別被形容詞,形容詞短語和形容詞從句修飾。

大多數形容詞短語是介詞短語。而形容詞從句可以由關系代詞或關系副詞引導。

1、關系代詞

The architect who designed this church was a man of genius.
The book from which I got this information is always regarded as authoritative.
A friend in whom one can trust is a treasure beyond price.
The boys with whom he associates do him no good.

2、關系副詞

The spot where the Old Guard made their last stand is marked by a bronze eagle.
The morning when I arrived in Rome is one of my pleasantest memories.
The year after Ashton left home brought fresh disaster.
The land whence Scyld drifted in his magic boat will never be known.

應注意,介詞和關系代詞往往能替代關系副詞。因此,第2個例句中的when可以用on which代替。

3、分詞

主語可以用分詞修飾(有或沒有修飾語/補足語)

Exasperated beyond endurance, the captain cut the rope.
John, obeying a sudden impulse, took to his heels.
 Having broken one oar, Robert had to scull.
The natives, fearing captivity above all things, leaped into the river.
Albert left the room, looking rather sullen.

在第1個例子中,分詞被副詞短語修飾;第2和第3個例子中,它有一個賓語;在第4個例句中,它有一個賓語和一個修飾語;第5個例子中,它跟隨表語形容詞sullen。在分析時,可以把整個分詞短語(由分詞和伴隨詞匯組成)當做修飾主語的形容詞短語對待;但把分詞作為修飾詞,然后分別列舉它自己的修飾語更簡單一些。

因此,在第4句中,簡單主語natives被分詞fearing修飾,而fearing帶一個補足語captivity(直接賓語),并被副詞短語“above all things”修飾。

應注意,盡管分詞是主語的修飾詞,同時還與謂語有特殊關系,因為它可以替代副詞從句的位置。因此,第7句中的fearing等同于從句“because they feared”;如果用這個從句替代分詞,當然是修飾謂語動詞leaped。分詞的這一雙重功能與它具有形容詞和動詞兩方面自然特性有關。在分析句子時,我們把分詞看做名詞的一個形容詞修飾詞,因為它的功能之一是替代副詞從句,是不同固定風格的一個重要手段。

4、動詞不定式

主語也可以用不定式修飾。

Ability to write rapidly is a valuable accomplishment.
Howard’s unwillingness to desert a friend cost him his life.

在第1個例子中,動詞不定式有一個副詞修飾詞(rapidly);第2個例子中,它有一個補足語friend(也是它的賓語)。這些例子也可以像對待分詞短語一樣使用兩種分析方法,

5、所有格

主語可以被所有格中的實詞修飾。這種實詞叫做所有格修飾語。

Napoleon’s tomb is in Paris.
A man’s house is his castle.
One’s taste in reading changes as one grows older.
A moment’s thought would have saved me.

在這些例句中,所有格中的實詞修飾主語,并像形容詞一樣精確限制它的意思。

應注意,形容詞短語經常被所有格替代。因此,在第一個例句中,可以用“the tomb of Napoleon”替代“Napoleon’s tomb”。

6、同位語

主語還可以用替代實詞的同位語修飾。

Meredith the carpenter lives in that house.
Herbert, our captain, has broken his leg.
The idol of the Aztecs, a grotesque image, was thrown down by the Spaniards.
Many books, both pamphlets and bound volumes, littered the table. [這里的主語books被兩個同位語修飾]

同位語往往有自己的修飾語。

carpenter被形容詞the修飾,captain被所有格our修飾,image的修飾語是形容詞a和grotesque。

在分析時,整個同位語短語(由同位語和附加詞匯)可以被視為主語的修飾語。然而,更好的做法是把同位語作為修飾語,然后分別列舉修飾同位語本身的形容詞。

名詞性從句可以當做同位語使用,因此也有可能是形容詞修飾語。

The question whether Antonio was a citizen was settled in the affirmative. [這里的斜體從句被當做名詞與question同位]
The statement that water freezes seems absurd to a native of the torrid zone. [從句“that water freezes”是statement的同位語]

同位語位置上的形容詞通常被叫做形容詞同位語。例如“A sword, keen and bright, flashed from the soldier’s scabbard.”

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